A spate of previous articles over the last decade has addressed mainstream health care professionals’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research: comparing this issue across provider groups and settings (Baugniet et al, 2000; Burg et al. 1998; Straub and Henley 2000; Tovey 1997); that has utilised qualitative methods for greater depth of analysis (Adams 2000; Bernstein and Shuval 1997; Bourgeault 1996; Fitch et al. 1999; Gray et al. 1998; Goldner 2000; Montbriand 2000; Sakala 1988; Verhoef et al. 2002); and even less that draws upon any sort of conceptual framework or theoretical perspective (Adams 2000; Adams and Tovey 2001; Bourgeault 1996; Tovey and Adams 2001; 2002; 2003). This has severely limited our ability to collectively advance understanding in this field of study. In this chapter, we attempt to address some of the limitations of this literature through a comparative examination of the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of physicians, nurses and midwives regarding CAM in two Canadian provinces – British Columbia and Ontario. We also draw upon existing theoretical contributions to the area of CAM more generally (Saks 1996; 2000; Sharma 2000; Siahpush 1999; Tovey and Adams 2002).