The aim of the work of the Study Group on Europe's Security Capabilities has been to explore ways in which Europe might react to the contemporary security environment, in essence, an attempt to figure out what mechanisms Europe needs in order to create and maintain ‘a secure Europe in a better world’ (Council of the European Union 2003). Strangely, perhaps, the military aspect of European security has been largely absent from this discussion. There is a wide range of missions that European armed forces could be expected to perform – from unarmed observation through peace enforcement to post-conflict reconstruction. Furthermore, there are many ways in which these missions could be carried out – in national ‘force packages’ or in centralized multinational mixed civil–military forces. Regardless of role or mission, there are fundamental military issues that must be addressed if an examination of security is to be said to be complete.