With such a rich mix of chapters in this volume and such a careful and thorough discussion from Susan Chipman, perhaps there is room for something a bit more radical and preliminary. In this chapter, prompted by the kinds of tools discussed in this volume (and by my own experiences with the Sherlock technical training system), I want to consider some specific possibilities for educational technology that could help reorient American educational practice. Specifically, I see the need for more effort to build tools to support much more substantial student and teacher originated learning activities than are common today. As I am suggesting possibilities for radical change, my argument has two parts. The first is that schools might change in radical ways over the next decade and the second is that these potential changes pose a particular kind of research and development agenda.