Although EAPs are seen as a humanitarian endeavor, the. primaiy motive for their development has been economic. Monetary considerations are a particularly strong driving force due to the considerable losses incurred from absenteeism, increased health care utilization and other associated costs which drive up health insurance premiums, grievances, and lost productivity. A review of the literature suggests that 18% of the working population is losing 25% productivity due to personal problems that affect their jobs (Masi, 1984). These loses are related to the following:

—Alcoholism is costing U.S. industry more than $20.6 billion in lost productivity (Royce, 1981).