During the last several years there have been many calls for reforming science education in the United States (for example, the National Academy of Science & National Academy of Engineering, 1982). If these are to be answered, attention needs to be directed toward the biological sciences, including biology education research. The basis for this claim is found in elementary, middle, and high school classrooms throughout the country. Biology and life science content are, and likely will remain, the most commonly taught at all levels. One reason is that elementary teachers tend to be most comfortable teaching life science topics. In addition, for students at both the elementary and secondary levels, learning about living things, including themselves, has an attraction that is difficult for other sciences to match. Thus research that sheds light on teaching and learning in biology has the potential to improve the science education that students receive. This may be particularly important given that we are in the midst of a biological "revolution"—one that will continue to present significant political, economic, ethical, and educational issues for our society to grapple with.