Some researchers have questioned the very fact that cultural differences have an impact on international business negotiations, arguing that negotiation is negotiation irrespective of where and with whom it takes place. Zartman (1993, p. 19) has phrased it in strong terms:

Culture is to negotiation what birds flying into engines are to flying airplanes or, at most, what weather is to aerodynamics – practical impediments that need to be taken into account (and avoided) once the basic process is fully understood and implemented.