This chapter analyzes two sets of interrelated counter-terrorism measures: counter-and de-radicalization efforts.2 Counter-radicalization efforts occur prior to any suspected criminal act, whereas de-radicalization interventions usually occur afterward. De-radicalization is perceived as a set of “hard” policies, led by criminal justice departments, the police, or military, that narrowly target specifi c individuals at risk of adopting, or already holding, radical views and/or who have carried out acts of violence in support of them (United Nations (UN) Counter Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) n.d.). These policies sit in contrast to “soft” and broadly targeted counter-radicalization efforts that address “at-risk communities” (Spalek et al. 2009) through social, economic, and political programs (CTITF n.d.). This chapter begins with a review of existing debates about the nature and causes of radicalization, then briefl y outlines existing state responses. From this basis, the chapter deploys a perspective informed by human rights and gender to evaluate state responses. I focus on three national policies and practices: the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and Indonesia. I selected these three because they represent different styles of counter-and de-radicalization programs, and are implemented in three distinct types of societies. It is worth noting that while de-and counter-radicalization programs have historically stemmed from state attempts to minimize the infl uence of far-right movements, post9/11 these programs are increasingly targeted at Muslim peoples, Islamic movements, and attendant ideologies. As a result, these post-9/11 programs are the primary focus. This limiting of scope enables a clear identifi cation of the particular ways in which race, religion, and gender intersect in post-9/11 understandings of terrorism. The review of state policies reveals that counterradicalization measures are organized around the two gendered logics of maternalism and paternalism. The characteristics of these two logics are detailed in this chapter, and although they are addressed separately here, they are mutually reinforcing. Importantly, these logics construct citizens, detainees, and relatives according to gender norms that foreground some assumptions about politics, terrorism, and rights, and exclude others.