Punitivity can be characterized as a ‘a mix of attitudes, enactments, motivations, policies, practices, and ways of thinking that taken together express greater intolerance of deviance and deviants, and greater support for harsher policies and severe punishments’ (Tonry, 2007, p. 5). There are two distinct dimensions to this: systemic responses (for example, sanctions and police practices) and sentiments and attitudes (see also Kury and Shea, 2011).