ABSTRACT

The notion of responsibility carries multiple meanings, and the responsibility of a government can take on different shapes. A distinction exists between forward-looking and backward-looking conceptions of responsibility.1 According to the forward-looking conception, a responsible government should get herself well equipped and prepared for dealing with future contingencies, for example, fi nancial crisis, natural disasters, war, and so on, and be capable of defending the collective interest, maintaining law and order, and ensuring national security and unity. A responsible government in the forward-looking sense thus implies a government with a reasonably high level of competence in governance.