Poverty remains among the most important challenges facing sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries today. Poverty in SSA countries is due to the failure of macroeconomic policies, market imperfections, inequalities as well as an inability of African governments to enhance productivity. The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the importance of knowledge and technological learning in building a knowledge-based economy in SSA countries. Despite abundant financial and human capital, most SSA countries still lack adequate scientific and technological infrastructure to absorb, apply and create knowledge and disseminate information. Empowering nations with knowledge could increase productivity, promote human development and reduce poverty. The chapter highlights the importance of transforming African economies into knowledge-based economies and building capacity for both promoting human development and enhancing capabilities of people to participate in the knowledge economy.