Since the end of World War II, millions of immigrants from developing countries have settled in Western Europe. Immigration and issues related to the integration of those settlers have become some of the most salient political issues in Europe over the last two decades. During the postwar recovery, many European countries began to import temporary labor. These workers initially came from Southern Europe, and later from former colonies and other developing countries. With the economic slowdown of the early 1970s, most European countries stopped the further importation of labor. However, many of the temporary workers settled permanently, and due to family reuniﬁ cation and asylum policies, large ﬂ ows of immigrants and asylum seekers continued to enter Europe. The settlement of these populations, many from Muslim backgrounds, has led to the development of a variety of policies related to immigrant integration. Not all policies are speciﬁ cally designed as integration policies, but policies related to welfare, labor markets, and cultural policies in combination with citizenship laws have created at least the appearance of a set of European approaches to immigrant integration.