Given the relative newness of migration to Europe and subsequent lack of theories to explain public attitudes to these newcomers, scholars have generally turned to theories developed by social and political psychologists in the U.S. to explain attitudes to minorities in that country. As will be seen in the following, many of these theories would appear to be even more applicable in the case of newcomers. Two of the main theoretical contenders for explaining attitudes to immigration are the theories connected to notions of competition for resources and theories emphasizing the importance of “symbolic” values and culture. These theories and ﬁ ndings connected to them are outlined in the following. In addition, researchers have explored the eff ects of national and local contexts, and contact with minorities and immigrants. These ideas will also be discussed here.