In the mid-1990s, Dayaks mobilized for violence all over the western districts of West Kalimantan, starting in Sambas district and moving to Pontianak and Sanggau districts. Dayaks from other parts of West Kalimantan also allegedly took part, travelling to these westernmost districts to participate. Their targets were specific. Of all the migrants living in these rural districts, only Madurese were killed or evicted. Not all Madurese were passive victims; certain Madurese aggressions prompted Dayak violence at the beginning and throughout the events (Human Rights Watch 1997; Harwell 2000; Peluso and Harwell 2001). People in West Kalimantan refer to this violence as the Dayak-Madurese war. It was not the first violence between Dayaks and Madurese, but it was the largest ever in terms of geographical extent, numbers of Madurese affected and numbers of Dayaks involved.2