Russian relations with Iraq and Iran offer a useful opportunity to study the balance of state and corporate interests in Russia’s foreign relations and its impact on conﬂict and cooperation, complementing the other case studies in this volume. Russian relations with these two countries are naturally different from Russian relations with the countries discussed in other chapters. In contrast to the CIS countries, Iran and Iraq are not contiguous to Russia, and while Moscow has long-standing relations with each, neither is within its immediate sphere of inﬂuence. In fact, Russia has little control over what happens in these two Middle Eastern countries. In the Caucasus and Central Asia, Russia is much more dominant, while Western countries are seeking to take a piece of the action. At the same time, the United States is obviously in a stronger position in the Middle East, and Russian policy is frequently designed to keep the Kremlin in the game.