The deepening of the globalization process, including the emergence of quasiconstitutional forms of economic integration such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA), has fuelled new conflicts over the control of the world’s strategic natural resources. Since many of the areas of greatest resource diversity are located within Indigenous territories, they are currently the sites of new struggles over the right to control lands and resources as well as to limit the impact of neoliberal globalization on Indigenous peoples, particularly women. Around the world, Indigenous peoples are mobilizing for the recognition of their status as nations and for the implementation of some form of self-government and political autonomy aimed at giving them control over how, and by whom, their lands and resources are exploited.