This chapter focusses on the relationship between thermal tourism and surgical medical tourism in Hungary and the policies of more than 50 years which have influenced their development. Most of Hungary’s thermal bath complexes were not constructed until after the Second World War, with the exception of some of the renovated Turkish baths in Budapest. They were therefore developed during the state socialist period (1945-1989), when tourism was mainly limited to domestic and intra-regional (Central and Eastern European) tourism, and the focus was predominantly on thermal medical tourism. The main aim of policy during this time was for the State to support medical trips to thermal destinations.