Whilst of course welcoming such developments and in no way underestimating their importance, new approaches make new demands on those at the frontline – the teachers. In order for any initiative to be implemented, teachers must engage with it; understand it; interpret it and then develop the necessary skills to put it into practice. Without teachers who are willing and able to do this, nothing at all can happen. Effective professional development for teachers of music in school must therefore be the cornerstone of any improvement in children’s musical learning.