This chapter addresses the complexity and the confusion that surrounds the concept of autonomy in legal terms and to provide some starting points for analysing and classifying indigenous autonomies. It focuses on selected case studies of legally established or recognized indigenous (territorial) autonomies or self-governments. The chapter describes whether a right to autonomy of indigenous peoples exists under international law or is confined to domestic legislation solely. The scholarly debate on autonomy has intensified since the 1980s. A territorial autonomy aimed at protecting a given group, generally speaking, may be found in a specific territory where the group represent the majority, being provided with self-ruling bodies by the state. The notion of a 'right to autonomy' at the international level is even more blurred and undetermined. Equally enlightening and welcomed would be a thorough study of indigenous perceptions and thoughts on the right to autonomy.