Many museums were founded in order to represent and validate national, local or group identities and have been understood to function as spaces which have tended to work against contemporary social and political concerns for cultural diversity and inclusion. Increasingly, however, museums are being perceived as places which might nurture respect for cultural differences and foster dialogue between groups (Bodo et al. 2009; Sandell 2007). This chapter draws on recent European research to examine this trend in museological thinking and practice and, in particular, looks at contemporary, experimental initiatives from Italy to consider the role that museums might play in promoting equality and mutual understanding between communities in multicultural societies.