The idea of human rights – as a set of values, norms and beliefs, as a moral framework and an ideal standard through which social equality and fairness might be achieved – is one that enjoys considerable support worldwide, capable of generating an extraordinary level of consensus amongst diverse social groups, institutions and governments, and across national and cultural boundaries (Donnelly 2003). Despite this widespread, global appeal, attempts to apply rights at the local level, to redraw the boundaries that distinguish those who enjoy rights from those who are denied them, rarely proceed uncontested. Indeed, such attempts frequently reveal conflicting moral positions and mobilise opposing parties to deny or seek to undermine rights claims, resulting in fiercely fought and highly visible battles. This chapter explores how and why museums, typically risk-averse institutions that prefer to avoid controversy, are increasingly taking up human rights as an interpretive frame through which to address, and engage visitors in debating, diverse contemporary social concerns.