As mentioned previously in this book, a number of countries, particularly since the mid 1980s, have begun to recognize community rights to forests (White and Martin, 2002; Agrawal et al, 2008; Sunderlin et al, 2008; Larson et al, 2 010a; see also Chapter 2 in this volume). These processes have often evolved in response to grassroots demands, such as those of indigenous communities, for the recognition of rights to forests that they have managed or used historically under customary institutions. Recognition may involve rights to resources or to resource revenues that were not previously acknowledged, and it may go so far as to involve demarcation and land titling.