How to ensure the effective protection of biological diversity and forests while also respecting indigenous peoples’ rights is an issue currently facing conservation groups, governments, and indigenous peoples. This is particularly the case in connection with the establishment and management of protected areas and proposed reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) projects. A large percentage of existing protected areas worldwide are on lands traditionally owned by indigenous peoples (Amend and Amend, 1992), and proposed REDD projects, which seek to maintain or increase carbon storage in standing forests, will disproportionately affect indigenous peoples (Dooley et al, 2008; Griffiths, 2008). The vast majority of these protected areas have been established and/or managed in violation of indigenous peoples’ rights. The same may also be the case in connection with extant and planned REDD projects.