This chapter presents a conceptual framework for conducting empirical investigations to study the effects some relevant factors (e.g. cross-cultural training, expatriates’ personality, self efficacy, and social network compositions) on international managers’ adjustments and performance in overseas assignments. Developed based on extensive reviews of literature, and empirical findings from prior research, the framework would be useful in developing relevant research agenda. Implications for future research in the new field of cross-cultural HRD have been discussed.