The U.S. Department of Justice (2006) reported that 2,258,983 prisoners were held in Federal or State prisons or local jails during 2006. These statistics represent a 2.9% increase from the previous year, but also show a decrease compared to the previously reported 3.4% annual increase since 1995. Despite positive developments, reports show an estimated 501 prison inmates for every 100,000 residents in the United States, an increase from 411 reported in 1995. Regardless of the positive and negative trends in the number of prisoners, overcrowding within the U.S. criminal justice system is a reality that needs attention. One method of addressing the problems in the current criminal justice system focuses on the idea of restorative justice and, more specifically, the positive effects of victim-offender mediation.