ABSTRACT

Civil-military relations in Pakistan in the year 2008 were underscored by transition from a military-led government to a civilian government in a post-electoral framework. This can be seen as the second phase of democratization in that country, after the fi rst phase (2002-07) had left the process of transition incomplete inasmuch as President Musharraf continued to control the business of the state. While the ‘civilian’ government from 2002 to 2007 had a public profi le of being subservient to the general on top, the ‘civilian’ government sworn in after the February 2008 elections had a clear anti-Musharraf mandate. Pakistan faced the challenge of cohabitation between the army represented by President Musharraf, now a retired general, and Prime Minister Yusaf Raza Gilani at the head of a Pakistan People’s Party (PPP)–Pakistan Muslim League (PML-N)–Awami National Party (ANP) coalition government.