The issue of inclusion and exclusion has a long history in European modernity. Social movements that advanced the various manifestations of liberalism and of nation-building represented the more inclusive drive, whereas the fact that citizen rights and entitlements always remained fragmented in a multitude of exclusive European states put a brake on inclusion. These two sides of European modernity are clearly present in Europe’s recent institutional innovation – the state of the European Union – some aspects of which will be discussed in this chapter.1