What does it mean to be a citizen in Europe? Imagine a Kurdish immigrant who has been naturalized in France keeping, as most do, his Turkish passport. Using his right of free movement as a EU citizen he has recently settled in Germany. He can now vote there in local and European Parliament elections. He may also participate in general elections in France and Turkey if he cares to travel there to cast his vote. He is a citizen of two nation states, of a municipality in another state and of a supra-national union, and may yet feel to be a foreigner whose strongest political afﬁliation is with a stateless Kurdish nation that cannot offer him citizenship.