In this chapter two classes in the Swedish school are compared. One is a vocational class, the other an academic class. The careful observation of teachers and students and the use of the spot check reveal some important differences and raises a whole series of questions about motivation, independent learning and the role of the teacher. It prompts our thinking about the balance of teacher intervention and student choice, structure and freedom, challenge and support. Embedded beneath these issues is the question of culture so that what may appear questionable to a British or Japanese or Czech perspective has to be set within the Swedish frame of reference.