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Dualism is a typical feature of the process of growth of later developing countries: it takes the form of the presence of advanced regions (and sectors) within a backward country. Dualism results from the conditions in which the existence of advanced countries inﬂuences the internal growth process. History, geography and technology are all elements that could explain this phenomenon in the sense that they determine a greater or lower growth rate of output and productivity. However, it should be apparent that dualism is, above all, the expression of a conditioned growth path, essentially characterized by the absence of learning and the lack of gradual acquisition of new technologies, due to out-of-equilibrium coordination failures.