Since the Candlelight Revolutions of 1989-90, the fragile new democracies of Central Europe and the Balkans have been struggling to survive and thrive. In addition to social, economic, and ethnic difficulties that could contribute to instability, a multitude of parties crowds the political spectrum of each state and confuses the electorate. Apart from restrictions and modifications to proportional representation, the sheer number of parties increases the potential for political atomization. The Czech and Slovak Federated Republic from 1989 to the end of 1992 was typical in this regard. In the election of 1990, over one hundred parties were registered, although only twenty-three parties and coalitions appeared on the ballot. Four groups entered the House of the People, and five were elected to the House of Nations, the two chambers which comprised the Federal Assembly, while four gained representation to the Czech and seven to the Slovak National Council.1 By 1992 the number of parties expanded to nearly one hundred and twenty, and in June of that year forty-one parties and coalitions participated in the parliamentary elections-nearly double the number of the 1990 contest. Eleven groups sent representatives to the House of the People, and twelve entered the House of Nations. Eight parties were sent to the Czech and five to the Slovak National Council.2 In each case, with the exception of the Slovak National Council, the total of parties and coalitions in the parliaments doubled or even tripled. The increase can be construed as an indicator of voter frustration over politicians’ handling of economic recovery, ethnic relations, and other matters. Popular discontent definitely explains the poor showing of certain groups originating from Civic Forum and Public against Violence, the Czech and Slovak organizations that had been prominent in the 1989 revolution.