Throughout the world the landscapes of mountain areas, maintained as open pasture and meadow by livestock husbandry, are among the richest in wildlife and most cherished for open-air recreation. But they are also among the most threatened. The traditional farming systems provide little ﬁnancial reward and are a very hard way of life, which young people are increasingly unprepared to take on. If the landscapes are abandoned a return to forest is inevitable and this process is advanced in many areas. Finding ways to support communities by helping old ways of life and by developing new ones is not easy.