Throughout the world, tourism continues to develop as a significant social and economic activity. World Tourism Organization figures indicate that receipts from international tourism more than doubled in the decade 1988-97, increasing from US$204 billion to US$444 billion (WTO 1998). International arrivals grew at a slower rate but in absolute terms rose from 394 million in 1988 to 613 million in 1997. Less comprehensive figures are available for domestic tourism. Figures for individual Western countries show experience in the late 1980s and early 1990s varied considerably. In some, such as France, domestic holidays continued to increase; elsewhere (for example, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and New Zealand), signs of stagnation or decline were appearing, in part as a consequence of increased outbound tourism (Pearce 1995). In contrast, domestic tourism was becoming more significant in some developing countries as changing standards of living meant domestic travel was becoming more accessible to a wider cross-section of society.