This chapter focuses on the nature and powers of governance arrangements in two Dutch metropolitan areas, both situated in the Randstad: the Metropolitan Region Amsterdam (Metropoolregio Amsterdam) and the Metropolitan Region Rotterdam The Hague (Metropoolregio Rotterdam Den Haag ). It considers the power of process by analysing the actor network and relations. The chapter deals with an overview of recent international trends in metropolitan governance. It then presents a summary of trends in sub-national governance in the Netherlands. Territorial governance is being redefined in the light of important societal challenges, new powers and responsibilities and new attempts to increase the societal relevance of planning. Metropolitan governance bodies – bodies aiming at organising responsibilities among public authorities in metropolitan areas – are extremely common in most OECD countries. Amidst the economic recession of the 1980s cooperation between the three Randstad provinces picked up again in various domains from 1985 onwards, including spatial planning.