Among the most ancient theatrical devices, puppets and mannequins have emerged as a powerful resource in contemporary theater, highlighting both the tensions and continuities between “live” physical performance and the long alternative tradition of puppetry and marionettes. In many contemporary works, puppets share the stage with human actors, a development that has provoked discussions concerning “liveness” and performativity in theater—debates that have received pointed expression in Julie Taymor’s work for stage, which is generally credited with sparking a renewed interest in puppetry in Western culture. 1 Developing along a parallel pathway, a major scholarly field has now opened concerning the metaphysics of the puppet theater, a wide-ranging inquiry that includes related forms such as replicants and cyborgs, understood as an underground expression of animism and religious fear. 2