In this chapter I reﬂect on ﬁliality (xiao ) from two distinct directions. One applies what in Greek would be called a Nomos-Phusis perspective to ﬁliality, namely to offer a gendered perspective on the differences between ﬁliality for men and women. The other is to consider xiao as an emotion, rather than as a virtue. ( This is a matter of emphasis; I am not suggesting that ﬁliality is not a virtue!) I concentrate on the strict sense of the term, ﬁlial duty to parents, rather than husbands or other relatives. If we adopt a gendered perspective on ﬁliality, there is a radical difference between ﬁliality as it is deﬁned for men and for women. Men’s ﬁliality is “genetically” deﬁned by lineage throughout life, but women’s ﬁliality is expected to shift to the new environment of her husband’s ancestral lineage at marriage. My second nature-nurture continuum concerns whether we are to regard ﬁliality as an emotion, which is arguably “natural,” at least in much traditional theory of the emotions, or as a virtue, which is a product of culture and upbringing.