Lord Callaghan, opening the conference, said that not everyone would have chosen an economic seminar as a birthday present. It was an unusual choice by an unusual man who had advised the govern­ ment on everything from anthrax and crofting to the Channel Tunnel as well as all kinds of other things. Like the Queen’s Birthday the event did not coincide with a real birthday but was an official affair, although he doubted whether those who took part could expect a holiday to go with it. Half a dozen countries were represented and all present were delighted to take part in the splendid surroundings of the University Senate Room. He hoped for plenty of cut and thrust in the discussion of the 1960s and was himself, as a practitioner in those days, in no mood to apologize for them, especially after having seen what happened in the 1970s and 1980s.