The United States, Japan and Germany collectively exert a profound impact on the global environment, not only as a consequence of massive resource exploitation, but also as models of social and economic development. Recent statistics (CIA 1990) reveal that these three countries account for nearly $8 trillion in annual gross national product (or roughly 40 per cent of the world’s total) and for 34 per cent of the world’s trade in resources, although they represent just 8 per cent of the world’s population. This degree of economic, political and environmental influence suggests the need for increased understanding of how each country views the natural world and its conservation. This chapter examines one particularly sensitive barometer of environmental concern-attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards animals, particularly wildlife and its associated natural habitats.