In the period from the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century ethical evaluations of human relationships with animals were influenced by various religious, philosophical and social factors. Contemporary views of animals were connected with such different areas as biblical exegesis and Christian morals, animal psychology, theory of moral rights and duties, vegetarianism, and love for pets. This chapter examines the role of these factors within the development of the discourse on the ethics of using animals. It looks at contemporary moral comments on slaughtering and meat-eating, care of domestic animals, hunting and blood sports, and vivisection.