Hornborg notes that ‘throughout the world, environmental movements and indigenous movements have been developing in a kind of conceptual symbiosis’ (1994:246), but the idea of indians as guardians is perhaps most elaborated in a certain romantic primitivism. Harries-Jones notes that some First Nation people in Canada clash with environmental NGOs run by middle-class whites who, in the eyes of indigenous leaders, hijack First Nations’ concerns with the protection of land and wildlife into a spiritual New Ageism and anti-industrialism that takes indian shamanism as an iconic symbol of oneness with nature (Harries-Jones 1993:49).