In November 1995, the first of the historical tribal land claims against the New Zealand state was settled. It involved the Waikato-Tainui people and their raupatu (confiscation) land claim negotiated by their statutory tribal authority, the Tainui Maori Trust Board (TMTB).2 The Waikato Raupatu Claims Settlement (New Zealand 1995) was hailed by the media3 as a ‘benchmark’ for subsequent historical land claims against the state. For Waikato-Tainui, the settlement began the process of healing, through the provision of a formal apology from the New Zealand state and the British Crown.4