In this chapter I examine the limits of the dominant theory of power, and its counterpart empowerment, that structure public policies on multiculturalism and anti-racism specifically in the field of education. I draw on ethnographic research which focuses on the dynamics of race, culture and identity in a high school in Metropolitan Toronto.2 The larger backdrop for my discussion is official Canadian state policies on multiculturalism and anti-racism.3 In Canada, as is the case elsewhere, multiculturalism draws its inspiration from an entrenched anthropological tradition of cultural relativism. By emphasising the attributes that characterise social groups and communities, cultural relativism produces reified and bounded notions of culture and identity as inheritable entities. Official policies on multiculturalism and anti-racism, which are premised on this popular understanding of culture, are also framed by beliefs in a dominant culture and the proliferation of minority cultures. The ‘dominant culture’ assumes dominance precisely because it is unmarked while the ‘minority’ or ‘multi-cultures’ are assumed to be neatly marked entities and objects of study.