The core thesis of this book raises questions concerning the evolutionary nature of cities, and the ways in which conceptual and technological apparatus can deal with the indeterminacies inherent to contexts that are rapidly urbanizing. I am thrilled to discuss these issues with you Tom, because your career has taken a unique path and your profile is that of a multidisciplinary technologist or even an inventor, working across design disciplines, from a background in structural and mechanical engineering, and industrial design engineering. Your research lies at the intersection of design and technology, from the scale of personal products, to building systems, to urban interfaces. Let's start by asking you to characterize the ways in which technology has historically changed cities, and more projectively, how do you see cities changing the evolution of technologies?