Strained relations between various Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities and the police in England and Wales have formed an enduring and complex narrative for many decades. Although it is widely understood that poor relationships between sections of the black community and police have recurred since the mid-1970s, studies have suggested that elements of these problems were apparent even longer ago than that (see Whitfield, 2004). Across much of the twentieth century there is evidence that police officers have harassed BME communities and failed to provide a robust response to racist violence. It continues to be the case that BME communities are broadly under-represented among police staff and that this underrepresentation is more pronounced among higher than lower ranks.