What are the characteristics of the schools in which the primary school teachers in France and England work? How similar are the buildings and their layout, and the individual classrooms? Does their use reflect similar working habits? Do teachers in each country work with similar class sizes and types of pupils? How do the teachers differ in their classroom practice, their organization and management? These are the questions with which this chapter attempts to deal on the basis both of the observations made during the author’s many classroom visits and of the quantitative information given by the teachers themselves.