In principle, the more choice individuals have, the more scope there is for guidance. This is illustrated in Figure 19.1, which outlines a spectrum of gradually increasing scope for choice and exercise of self-determination (within competitive constraints). Madsen (1986) suggests that the model can be applied historically, demonstrating the shift from pre-industrial societies with a social order based largely on ascription to industrial societies with a social order based more extensively on achievement. This helps to explain why formal guidance services have tended to emerge as a product of industrialisation (see Chapter 20). Within societies based on achievement rather than ascription, with increasingly complex and volatile occupational structures, the family’s capacity to communicate information on opportunities becomes inadequate. Individuals are likely to need guidance from more formal sources in order to make effective use of their increased freedom to choose; conversely, the social structure is more likely to require arrangements which support the free choice of the individual but relate it to social needs.