CRIMES THAT TARGET INDIVIDUALS because of their sexual orientation-commonly referred to as hate crimes or bias crimes-are now understood to be a serious social problem (Jenness & Broad, 1997). This recognition has been facilitated, in part, by empirical research showing that hate crime victimization is widespread among lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals and that hate crimes are less likely than other crimes to be reported to police authorities (e.g., Berrill, 1992a; Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1999; Herek, 1989, 1993; Herek, Gillis, & Cogan, 1999; Herek, Gillis, Cogan, & Glunt, 1997; Pilkington & D’Augelli, 1995).