The future of trade unionism in Britain is bound up with the fortunes and prospects for public service trade unions. Of the ten largest trade unions, four recruit almost exclusively in the public services and most of the remainder have a significant public service presence (Certification Officer 2002). Public service trade unions fared much better than their private sector counterparts during the neo-liberal assault of the 1980s and 1990s. Aggregate trade union density for all public sector employees is significantly higher than in the private sector, being 59 and 19 per cent respectively (Brook 2002: 348). More recently, substantial increases in public expenditure and employment during the Labour government’s second term of office, have enabled some public service unions to increase membership levels.