The statutory recognition procedure, introduced under the Employment Relations Act (ERA) in June 2000, is succeeding in providing union recognition where the majority of the workforce wants it – in most cases. Yet recognition ballots held under the procedure are proving an area of uncertainty, with unions losing over a third of ballots ordered by the Central Arbitration Committee (CAC) in the first three years. In this chapter I explore the roles played by union organizing and employer behaviour in the outcome of statutory recognition ballots.