The theoretical and canonical foundation of the internationalization and homogenization of postwar Dutch economics was the neo-classical synthesis. This is the canonical view which at first gave rise to the belief that ‘we are all Keynesians now’, and which not much later was disqualified by Joan Robinson as bastard Keynesianism. The Dutch economists who developed a dislike for schools in economic thought, considered both the neo-classical and the (bastard) Keynesian toolboxes as important instruments for economic policy and in the 1960s they had strong doubts about the practical relevance of the destructive criticism which came from Cambridge (UK). Indeed, as one would expect, in the Netherlands the neo-classical synthesis was welcomed as an invitation for a Dutch treat.1