The purpose of this chapter is to describe the history of food aid, to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of using food as a development instrument, and to propose a new ‘food aid regime’ for the future. Food aid is conventionally classified into three categories: programme; project; and emergency aid. The objective of programme and project food aid is to support economic and social development in recipient countries and both undergo the traditional project cycle of preparation, implementation, and evaluation. Emergency food aid, on the other hand, provides short-term relief in response to natural or man-made disasters. The objective is survival although the importance of prevention and rehabilitation is increasingly being emphasised by food aid practitioners. The chapter focuses on development food aid.